The Art of Persuasion

September 7, 2008

My attention was riveted to the TV. Not that I watch the boob tube too much but I was watching both the Democratic and Republican National Conventions and the politicians were brilliant orators. Able to persuade, able to convince, but the best authority on persuasion and oratorical study does not belong to either the Democrats or the Republicans, you have to consult the masters. The great Cicero and Aristotle. The Greek philosopher Aristotle (lived in circa 384-322 BC) wrote the book on rhetoric – called The Art of Rhetoric – way back in the 4th century BC.

Aristotle said that aside from “tortures, depositions, and the like,” there are only three ways: logos, pathos, and ethos. In English, you might say logic, emotion, and character. Put it all together, and you get a reasonable argument, passionately made, by a person you trust.

So let’s look at each one.

1. Logos

Logic is an obvious one. After all, who isn’t a sucker for irrefutable facts, verifiable numbers, and the inexorable march of reason across the course of a well-constructed speech? In fact, for many thinkers, including Aristotle’s mentor, Plato, logos is the only legitimate way to win friends and influence people. The rest is sophistry. Logos was even more persuasive to ancient Greek philosophers, because they had a pretty expansive notion of what logos was. It could be the simple reason in the words of a speech, or it could mean the supreme reason of the universe, which all rational appeals naturally plugged into.

2. Pathos

Still, unlike old Plato, Aristotle was willing to look beyond strictly rational appeals. He recognized that people “do not give judgment in the same way when aggrieved as when pleased”–especially, he snobbily wrote, “audiences of limited intellectual scope and limited capacity to follow an extended chain of reasoning.” Enter pathos. Let’s face it, said Aristotle. If you really want to persuade people, sometimes you have to resort to emotional appeals. It’s why campaigns try to wrap themselves in the flag and make you fear the other guy. It’s why a winning smile and puppy-dog eyes work magic in getting your way. It’s why lawyers have the saying “If the facts are on your side, pound the facts. If the law is on your side, pound the law. If neither is, pound the table.”

Of course, emotional appeals can take more subtle forms, too. Aristotle pointed out that eloquence itself is a kind of emotional persuasion. “Style makes the matter more persuasive,” he wrote, “for the mind is tricked as though the speaker were telling the truth.”

3. Ethos

For a reason-loving philosopher like Aristotle, admitting the power of pathos had to be hard enough. But he goes even further with ethos. “Character,” he wrote, “contains almost the strongest proof of all.”

Quite simply, it matters who’s trying to persuade you. If the person trying to sway you shows “common sense, virtue, and goodwill” (for Aristotle, an ethical trifecta), then really, aren’t you more likely to believe what that person says? Aristotle thought so, and so thought that persuasive attempts must work to “establish the speaker himself as being of a certain type”–namely, the type of person you’ll believe.

Sometimes ethos is the only thing that matters. If, based on arcane medical tests, one doctor says you need immediate surgery, and another says you don’t, how are you going to decide–except by judging who seems more credible? Similarly, lawyers put dueling experts on the stand, and politicians put dueling wonks on TV. Their reasons are obscure and technical, and only ethos makes the sale. That’s why the old vaudeville philosophers used to say, “If you can fake sincerity, you’ve got it made.”

This article from Michael Himick of The Knowledge News Web Site is so convincing.

This is why as a public speaker I am constantly reminded that the message should be right but the messenger should be righteous. By their fruit you shall know them says The Good Book.

This Post Has 7 Comments

  1. paula

    .hey mr. francis.. thankyou for visiting our school.. u inspire us

  2. Ariel M. Condez

    Good day, just watch your guest appearance in UKG on 9/11/08, am interested on a tip for IQ, EQ and AQ for a person, i want to have a copy of the article for my guide if you don’t mind, thank you very much and more power to you on your inspiring ideas.

  3. Pauline Hurt

    Good day, i watched also your guest appearance in UKG this morning 9-11-08, and I am also interested to have a copy on the tip for IQ,EQ and AQ for a person. pls send me copy at the email address mentioned above. thank you and god bless and more power!

  4. Marvin Jocson

    Good day, I was able to watch your guest appearance in UKG before I left to school. I was amazed with all your talks about the IQ, EQ, and AQ… I wish to have a copy of the said topics. Please send me a copy. This once in a lifetime chance would be a great factor of motivation: for me to study , more. Thank you and God speed.

  5. leon

    Good day, just watch your guest appearance in UKG on 9/11/08, am interested on a tip for IQ, EQ and AQ for a person, i want to have a copy of the article for my guide if you don’t mind, thank you very much and more power to you on your inspiring ideas.

  6. Carlo Parra

    Greetings, Mr. Kong. I’ve already read one of your books before entitled “The Early Bird Catches Worm But The Second Mouse Gets the Cheese.” I really appreciate the way you write motivational stories especially those which covers my areas of interest… such as leadership, persusasion, perspective, etc. And when I saw you on a TV guesting, I immediately took note of this site to visit it and let you know how much good you’ve done to other people’s lives. I wish to be somebody like you.. not someday.. but SOON. Thank you and God bless!

  7. Maylyn Profeta

    Greeting Sir! I was a fresh graduate (and still unemployed) when I saw your book “The Early Bird Catches Worm But The Second Mouse Gets the Cheese”in a bookstore. From then I promised myself to get a copy of that as soon as I get employed. But now I am based abroad, and I’m trying to find an online store where I can buy your books. When I was in the Philippines, I tried asking several bookstores but I wasn’t able to get one. Can you help me. Thanks so much and more power.

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